Behavioral Studies

Catledge, L. and Pitkow, J. (1995). Characterizing browsing strategies in the World-Wide Web. In Proc 3rd International World Wide Web Conference, Darmstadt, Germany.
40% of visits are of previously seen pages

Phong Le and Makoto Waseda (2000). Curious Browsers. Advisors: Professors David C. Brown and Mark Claypool.
Shows time on page, scrolling, an time*scrolling were best predictors of interest

Bookmark Usage

Prior Art

Cockburn, A., and Greenberg, S. (2000). Issues of Page Representation and Organisation in Web Browser’s Revisitation Tools. Australian Journal of Information Systems (AJIS) 7(2), 120-127, May. (Reprinted from Proceedings of the OZCHI'99 Australian Conference on Human Computer Interaction, November 28-30, Wagga Wagga Australia).

Corin R. Anderson and Eric Horvitz (2002). Web Montage: A Dynamic Personalized Start Page In: Eleventh Inernational World Wide Web Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2002.

Greenberg, S., Ho, G. and Kaasten, S. (2000) Contrasting Stack-Based and Recency-Based Back Buttons on Web Browsers. Report 2000-666-18, Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, August. (Updated January 2002).

Greenberg, S. and Cockburn, A. (1999). Getting Back to Back: Alternate Behaviors for a Web Browser's Back Button. Proceedings of the 5th Annual Human Factors and the Web Conference, Held at NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, June 3th.
Explores alternates to tree trimming in history lists: Recency with Temporal Ordering Enhancement, Recency with Hub-and-Spoke Enhancement, Recency: Adding Spokes Only, Pure Recency.
James Pitkow, Hinrich Schütze, Todd Cass, Rob Cooley, Don Turnbull, Andy Edmonds, Eytan Adar, Thomas Breuel (2002). Personalized Search. Communications of the ACM, Volume 45 , Issue 9 (September 2002). ACM membership required at
Implicit personalization based upon web usage patterns.


Surf Maps.

Online Bibliography of History Visualization.

Related Software Products

Internet Cartographer: Sorry, doesn't support Mozilla.


Browser History Diagram, from

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